In 471 Hijri, Syedna Abdul Qadir Jeelani was born in Jeelan. As it has been stated in the beginning lines, the Muslim world had been undergoing a painful period of its history. The kings were accustomed of luxurious life. The aristocracy, following the kings, had plunged into luxury. The true sages ceased to be noticed. The so called religious scholars remained busy in creating ever new troubles. Their favourite hobby was the Exclusion (takfeer) of their opponents. The Baatinia & the Qaramita had been scheming & misleading the public with their interpretation of the apparent & the internal and thus deprived them of their beliefs. On the other hand, there were the sufees, most of whom earned the world under the cover of Deen. A few among them were pious who had no time spared from their ascetic practices. This was the internal ulcer which sapped the body of the religion.
Another suffering that befell the Muslim countries was the incursion of the Christians, resulting into the Crusades, who having no resistance had destroyed the Palestinian & Syrian lands and massacred the Muslims on a large scale. The Christian had taken possession of the first shrine of the Muslims i.e Bait-ul-Muqaddas . The attack & the rule of the Christians over this holy land which was maintained at the cost of the blood of the martyrs, was in no way less than a commotion for the Muslims. The same was an external commotion while the preaching of the misleading ideas & concepts of the Qaramita & the Baatinia was an internal tragedy of the Muslim world.
In the gloom of such hopelessness, Hazrat Syed Abdul Qadir Jeelani R.A came with a torch of guidance and lighted the entire Muslim world. At the age of 18, he reached Baghdad from his homeland Jeelan. After completing the customary studies of the day, he set out on his spiritual journey and acquired the highest religious & spiritual ranks within a short period. His ascetic practices were so rigorous that for many years, he performed his Fajr prayers with the wuzoo (ablution) of the Ishaa prayers and completed the recitation of the Holy Quran before the Fajr prayers. He felt perturbed on the two evils i.s the internal one- the Qaramita & the Baatinia and the external one - the possession of the Christan Crusaders over Bait-ul-Muqaddas.
Nature had blessed him with an effective tongue. People thronged in to listen to his sermons in large numbers. His selflessness, sacrifice and sincerity had not only got hold of Baghdad but the hearts of all the Muslims, too. He never cared for the endowments of the lords & the kings but had pathetic feelings for poor. He avoided the rich & the lords. However, he kept an open house for the common people. In a few days, the public came to know that the holy man, they had been longing for, had appeared on the scene. Up to 400 ink-pots were counted during his sermon. Every word spoken by him was recorded promptly. In his sermons, he criticized the epicurean rulers, lustful lords and impostor sufees mercilessly. The people got a new spirit from his sermons. His truthfulness regenerated the whole world of Islam.It stirred the Muslims to think over their faults and they achieved the force of accountability that enabled a slave to hold a ruler accountable publicly. His sermons enlightened the world and thus the astray boat of the Millat set out on its route.
He was a miraculous person and miracles happened very often on his hand. But his chiefest miracle was the revitalization of the weakened & sapped body of Deen-Islam. On account of his spiritual grandeur, piety and arduous ascetic practices, he had acquired such public recognition as was not held by the rulers of the time. Thousands of people swore fealty of him and renounced their sins & crimes. He founded the Qadria spiritual lineage and took Islam to its highest point from where it is not feared to lose its height up to the day of Judgment.
Hazrat Shaikh Shahaab ud Deen Suherwardi, the founder of the Suharwardia spiritual lineage, was one of those who adjoined him. Hence, he is the founder of the Suherwardia spiritual lineage also. Popularity of the Qadria spiritual lineage can be estimated by the fact that it is present in every part of the world unlike the other spiritual lineages of Sufism which are limited to some specific areas of the world.
An aspect of " Qadami Alaa Raqabate Kulle Wali " can also be interpreted that as the loftiness of character of Ghaus-i-Azam Syedna Abdul Qadir Jeelani, impact of his sermons and his spiritual grandeur not only brought the thieves and robbers on the right path but brought the epicurean lords and the rulers on the way of struggle and familiarized them with the spirit of Jihaad, also. This world had no place for the mischievous scholars and the impostor sufees, now. The conspiracies of the Qaramita & the Baatinia were exposed and they found no safe place for their wicked designs.
Another revolution came in the form of Mustarshid as caliph in Baghdad who reincarnated the past glory of the Abbasid. In Syria, Noor ud Deen Zangi appeared whose sole motive was the exclusion of the Christian Crusaders from the Syrian & Palestinian lands. In 555 Hijri, he struck the Christian Crusaders effectively and this was the scene for which Syedna Abdul Qadir Jeelani had devoted his life. Besides being an embodiment of valour, Noor ud Deen Zangi had the lofty traits of piety & faithfulness. Salahud Deen was fostered by him who in 573 Hijri, performed the historical heroic deed of exclusion of the Christian Crusaders from Palestine & Bait ul Muqaddas for which the Muslim world had been praying for a long time.
He had a lot of traits of character which can not be counted completely. In short, we can say that he was a man of character free of any drab of evil.
The chiefest achievement of Syedna Abdul Qadir Jeelani is the driving of the attention of the Muslims towards the recovery of the holy lands. This can be explained in the following words. The teachers of the Saljooq rulers were called Atabak. These Atabaks had a hand in the government. So, when the Saljooq government lost its hold over the country, all these Atabaks got hold of their respective provinces.The Atabakaan-i-Syria started their government in 521 Hijri. Atabak Emaad ud Deen Zangi was the founder of this dynasty who died in 544 Hijri. Noor-ud-Deen Zangi was his successor who started war against the Christian Crusaders. What do you conclude from this awakening of the Muslim world? The great sun of saint hood is flashing its light from Baghdad. Its rays are enlightening every corner of the Muslim world. The people are awakening. The lords are leaving their pleasure houses. It seems the wind has changed its direction and the leader's call has brought the Muslims to the right path of struggle.
The rule of the Ubaideen of Egypt was finished by Atabak Noor-ud-Deen Zangi. He appointed Asadud Deen Shair Koh governor there who got hold of Egypt. Salahud Deen Ayyoobi, the founder of Ayyoobi dynasty and the Conquerer of Bait ul Muqaddas was the nephew ( son of brother) of Asad ud Deen Shair Koh. This godly king became the centre of attention for the Muslim world. Wherefrom he got the aim of the conquest of Bait-ul-Muqaddas? It is so simple. From Baghdad to Damascus, there was only one dominant call. The call was so powerful that it reached everywhere. Look into his book, "Futoohul Ghaib " . Its every word bears full impact and its every sentence affects like a sharp sword. After his demise, Salahud Deen Ayyoobi becomes the ruler of Egypt, after four years. In 569 Hijri, after death of Noor-ud-Deen Zangi, he becomes the king of Egypt & Syria. The flutter of spirit, inspired from the court of Syedna Abdul Qadir Jeelani expresses itself through his war against the invader Christian Crusaders and enjoys worldly & religious good name by conquering Bait-ul-Muqaddas after a struggle of nine years. He spends the rest of his life in combating against the Christians. This was the spiritual beneficence of Syedna Abdul Qadir Jeelani that removed the blemish from the forehead of Islam which had kept its beautiful face darkened for 90 years.Maulana Anwer Shah Kashmiri, in the explanatory key to Bukhari, relates a hadith in which the holy prophet PBUH said, "At the end of C-5th Hijri & at the beginning of C-6th Hijri, a trouble will befall on my Ummat (nation). If it survives, it will be established."